Monday, May 25, 2020
Late work is a teacher housekeeping task that often causes a classroom management nightmare for teachers. Late work can be especially difficult for new educators who do not have a set policy in place or even for a veteran teacher who has created a policy that just is not working. There are many reasons why makeup or late work should be allowed, but the best reason to consider is that any work that was deemed important enough by a teacher to be assigned, deserves to be completed. If homework or classwork is not important, or are assigned as busy work, students will notice, and they will not be motivated to complete the assignments. Any homework and/or classwork a teacher assigns and collects should support a students academic growth. There may be students returning from excused or unexcused absences who will need to complete makeup work. There also may be students who have not worked responsibly. There may be assignment completed on paper, and now there may be assignments submitted digitally. There are multiple software programs where students may submit homework or classwork. However, there may be studentsÃ who lack theÃ resources or support they need at home. Therefore, it is important that teachers create late work and make-up work policies for hard copies and for digital submissions that they can follow consistently and with a minimum of effort. Anything less will result in confusion and further problems. Questions to Consider When Creating a Late Work and Makeup Work Policy Research your schools current late work policies. Questions to ask:Does my school have a set policy for teachers concerning late work? For example, there might be a schoolwide policy that all teachers are to take off a letter grade for each day late.What is my schools policy concerning time for makeup work? Many school districts allow students two days to complete late work for each day they were out.What is my schools policy for making up work when a student has an excused absence? Does that policy differ for an unexcused absence? Some schools do not allow students to make up work after unexcused absences.Decide how you want to handle collecting on-time homework or classwork. Options to consider:Collecting homework (hard copies) at the door as they enter the class.Digital submissions to a classroom software platform or app (ex: Edmodo, Google Classroom). These will have a digital time stamp on each document.Ask students have to turn homework/classwork into a specific location (homew ork/classwork box) by the bell to be considered on time.Use a timestamp to put on homework /classwork to mark when it was submitted.Ã Determine if you will accept partially-completed homework or classwork. If so, then students can be considered on time even if they have not completed their work. If not, this needs to be clearly explained to students.Decide what type of penalty (if any) you will assign to late work. This is an important decision because it will impact how you control late work. Many teachers choose to lower a students grade by one letter for each day that it is late. If this is what you choose, then you will need to come up with a method for recording the dates past deadline for hard copies to help you remember as you grade later that day. Possible ways to mark late work:Have students write the date they turn in the homework on the top. This saves you time but could also lead to cheating.You write the date the homework was turned in on the top as it is turned in. T his will only work if you have a mechanism for students to turn in work directly to you each day.If you wish to use a homework collection box, then you can mark the day each assignment was turned in on the paper when you grade each day. However, this requires daily maintenance on your part so that you dont get confused.Decide how will you assign makeup work to students who were absent. Possible ways to assign makeup work:Have an assignment book where you write down all classwork and homework along with a folder for copies of any worksheets/handouts. Students are responsible for checking the assignment book when they return and collecting the assignments. This requires you to be organized and to update the assignment book each day.Create a buddy system. Have students be responsible for writing down assignments to share with someone who was out of class. If you gave notes in class, either provide a copy for the students who missed or you can have them copy notes for a friend. Be aware that students have to on their own time copy notes and they might not get all the information depending on the quality of the notes copied.Only give makeup work before or after school. Students have to come to see you when you are not teaching so that they can get the work. This can be hard for some students who do not have the time to come before or after depending on bus/ride schedules.Have a separate makeup assignment that uses the same skills, but different questions or criteria.Prepare how will you have students makeup tests and/or quizzes that they missed when they were absent. Many teachers require students to meet with them either before or after school. However, if there is an issue or concern with that, you might be able to have them come to your room during your planning period or lunch to try and complete the work. For students who need to make up assessments, you may want to design an alternate assessment, with different questions.Anticipate that long-term assignments (ones where students have two or more weeks to work on) will take much more supervision. Break the project up into chunks, staggering the workload when possible. Breaking up one assignment into smaller deadlines will mean that you are not chasing a largeÃ assignment with a high percentage grade that is late.Decide how you will address late projects or large percentage assignments. Will you allow late submissions?Ã Make sure that you address this issue at the beginning of the year, especially if you are going to have a research paper or other long-term assignment in your class. Most teachers make it a policy that if students are absent on the day a long-term assignment is due that it must be submitted the day that student returns to school. Without this policy, you might find students who are trying to gain extra days by being absent. If you do not have a consistent late work or makeup policy, your students will notice. Students who turn their work in on time will be upset, and those who are consistently late will take advantage of you. The key to an effective late work and makeup work policy is good recordkeeping and daily enforcement. Once you decide what you want for your late work and makeup policy, then stick to that policy. Share your policy with other teachers because there is strength in consistency. Only by your consistent actions will this become one less worry in your school day.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"By this everyone will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another?Ã¢â¬ (Jn 13:35)What is a committed religious life for being a Catholic sister or nun. Catholic sister and nuns have a different variation of lifestyle, ministries and callings. All community has its own peculiar identity and flavor, this is because there are no two association, as there is no two nuns that are the same. As we watch movies about nuns we sometimes predict sisters and nuns to be living a highly ordered life which is unchanging in structure which is repetitive in context. But the truth is that there may be some regular customs and practices, a day in Catholic sister and nun life as it is diverse, especially as the Holy Spirit is in charge. As a day in a life of nuns are constructed around service within the chapel because by joining a convent or nunnery, nuns have to make a choice to devote their life to God. Religion has influenced the life of a nun. A lot of convents do have its own particular daily timetable for a nun as many do the following similarly: the first day of services 02.00: Matins Laud After Matins Laud, nuns would go back to bed and would get up again at first light. She then would go and wash and have a breakfast which consist of bread and beer. This is because of the boiling process involved in the making of beer.( it was a lot less dangerous to drink beer than water.) the second service of the day 07.00: Prime. After Prime, nuns would meet in the chapterShow MoreRelatedReligion: Gender Inequality1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages In world religion, gender inequality has always been a great concern. This inequality did not exist based on the concepts of original religion but through cultural influence and social manipulation. The essence of Buddhism originated from a human being (known as Buddha). And Buddha is the one who achieved the highest enlightenment. Often in Buddhism concept, there was confusion about how much devotion is required to achieve the great Ã¢â¬Å"EnlightenmentÃ¢â¬ for monk or nun. Women in the Buddhism faceRead MoreReligious Life For Being A Catholic Sister Or Nun1148 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhat is religious life for being a Catholic sister or nun. Catholic sister and nuns have a different variation of lifestyle, ministries and callings. All community has its own peculiar identity and flavor, this is because there are no two association, as there is no two nuns that are th e same. As we watch movies about nuns we sometimes predict sisters and nuns to be living a highly ordered life which is unchanging in structure which is repetitive in context. But the truth is that there may be someRead MoreReligion Is A System Of Belief1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJAINISM RELIGION Religion is a system of belief in spiritual beings and practices observed by a group of people, institutions, churches, codes related to sacred things (Horton, 1960). The world has numerous religions with different set of beliefs and perspective. Majority of these religions are centuries old and have a wide following in different parts of the world depending on their origin. Jainism is one of these oldest religions in the world that have survived to date with a huge following inRead MoreChristianity And The Middle Ages1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesorder to grow as fast as its leading religion which was islamic faith. When the religion was in its prime of evolving it need to become a stable and function community which during war it felt very unlike to. 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Mother Teresa has had a significant impact on society through herRead MoreInfluence Of Religion On The Life Of Ca therine Mcauley1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSyllabus Points: How people respond to the meaning and purpose offered by religion Examples of how people are influenced /shaped by religion Task Description: An essay about the influence of religion in the life of Catherine McAuley. Revision Focus: You will be required to revise *Content from the Unit 2 Module 1.0 Religion and Life *The historical background of Catherine McAuley *Essay writing skills *In text quoting QUESTION: An essay about the influence of religion in the life of Catherine McAuleyRead MoreHinduism: The Ancient Texts and Artistic Endeavors of India 1801 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescentered on the sacred Vedas scriptures of the Aryans, led to the development of a new religious tradition that would prevail for thousands of years: Hinduism (Lockard 50). Thus, the ancient texts and artistic endeavors of India tended to reflect the religion that dominated the subcontinent for centuries. Hinduism emerged as a muse for scholarship, literature, and higher learning in ancient India, as evident by the gamut of wall murals, carvings, and essays about karma, dharma, and the Vedic deities.Read MoreAnnotated Bibliography on the Role of Feminism and Women in Buddhism5082 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagesIntroduction Women in religion are so often swept away by the more prominent achievements of the male members of their order. This does not mean that these women did not play a formative role in their religion, but their stories are often unrecorded or ignored and their contributions are devalued. It is easy to believe that this is isolated to one religion that we might feel particularly uncharitable towards, however my research has shown that this happens in almost all religions around the world.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Leda and the Swan notes Origins Leda and the Swan was a Greek myth in which the God Zeus transformed into a swan and raped the girl Leda. Different versions of the myth disagree on whether Leda was actually raped or seduced by Zeus. In the myth, Leda gave birth to four children, who hatched from eggs. One of the children was Helen of Troy, the woman the Trojan War was fought over. Analysis on form The poem is a sonnet-it has 14 lines. Each of the lines has 10 beats to it. Yeats plays with a loose rhyme scheme. The general pattern is ABAB CDCD EFGEFG. But some of the rhymes are only slant rhymes, like push and rush, or up and drop. The first nine lines of Leda and the Swan describe the act of rape from LedasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Leda may have known the implications of her rape as the poem suggests she may have taken on some of ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge as well as his power, but she was powerless to prevent it. Conclusion Leda and the Swan has some of the strongest and most brutal imagery of all of YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ poems, and is rich in historical context, exploring the consequences of the actions in the poem. It explores many themes such as the cycles of nature, destiny and fate, and more supernatural themes such as shape-shifting andShow MoreRelated YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ Leda and the Swan and Van Duyns Leda Essay1770 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesYeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ Leda and the Swan and Van Duyns LedaÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In Greek mythology, Leda, a Spartan queen, was so beautiful that Zeus, ruler of the gods, decided he must have her. Since immortals usually did not present themselves to humankind in their divine forms, Zeus changed himself into a great swan and in that shape ravished the helpless girl (Carey 58-59). 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Note the sexualized subtext that permeates the poem, who will pierce the deep woods woven shade? Who will drive with Fergus. Finally, we get the reasons to be the alpha male - the man of action, in the repetition of the wo rd rules. The alpha commandsRead MoreIrony In Alexander Popes Epistle1639 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesclear satire on the nature of women titled Epistle to a Lady: On the Characters of Women. Here Pope satirizes the inconsistencies of the women folk through his use of irony and wit. The very beginning lines of the epistle are ironic as it opens on a note of familiarity reflected by the Ã¢â¬ËyouÃ¢â¬â¢ accompanied by a witty remark. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing so true as what you once let fall, Most women have no Characters at all. The ironicRead MoreLeonardo Da Vinci s Portrait Of Cecilia Gallerani Essay2022 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesrevolutionary psychoanalytic study in which he argued that Leonardo was homosexual but celibate, and that he sublimated his erotic side into endless research. Freud pointed to a coldly clinical drawing of heterosexual intercourse among Leonardo s notes, which shows the lovers standing up, like mannequins. It is conversely true that Leonardo drew many highly detailed studies of the anal sphincter. When he died, he left some works to Salai, while his more recent companion Francesco Melzi inherited
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Delivery. Answer: Introduction The assessment focuses on the evaluation of the person-centred interventions requiring administration with the objective of decreasing the frequency of falls in the demented people. Evidence-based research literature advocates the elevated risk of falls in demented patients. The disorders related to Parkinsons dementia and Lewy Body Dementia predominantly increase the likelihood of the affected patients in terms of experiencing falls while undertaking day-to-day activities (Aizen 2015). Limited evidence is available regarding the development of definitive strategies for reducing the frequency of falls and associated traumatic conditions in the demented people. Primary exercise approaches prove to be effective modalities that increase stamina and confidence of demented patients and reduce their risk of falls across the community environment. However, the method of their implementation for the target population remains debatable in the medical community. Evidence-based research literat ure advocates the pattern of dose-response relationship between the frequency of falls in demented people and the administration of psychotropic drugs (Jong, Elst Hartholt 2013). The increased administration of psychotropic medication results in the reciprocal elevation of the falling frequency in the demented people. Therefore, medical professionals require administering person-centred approaches to streamline the pattern of medication management for the associated reduction in falling frequency in the demented population. Gait deterioration and cognitive decline include some of the significant factors that evidently contribute to the falls in elderly demented people (Segev-Jacubovski et al. 2011). The administration of multimodal cognitive interventions with the systematic utilization of therapeutic communication is therefore highly warranted for controlling the frequency of falling episodes in the patients affected with dementia and associated mental manifestations (Jootun McGh ee 2011). The presented research paper effectively explores the implication of the therapeutic relationship on the pattern of person-centred care of demented patients with the objective of substantially reducing their falling risk in the clinical as well as residential settings. The improvement in patient outcomes through the utilization of therapeutic communication will provide a new paradigm to dementia care in the medical facilities. The literature review was undertaken with the objective of exploring the influence of therapeutic communication on improving the patient care outcomes in the dementia setting. Evidence-based analysis attempted to affirm the potential of an effective therapeutic relationship in terms of facilitating person-centred healthcare interventions requiring administration by medical professionals for reducing the falling frequency in the demented patients. The scientific databases including PubMed, CINAHL, Research Gate, Cochrane and ProQuest Central were researched with the objective of exploring the articles of interest while sequentially utilizing the search terms including therapeutic communication/Dementia/falls, therapeutic communication/cognitive/dementia/falls, dementia/trauma/therapeutic relationship, person-centred/dementia/therapeutic relationship and communication, nursing, dementia care and patient-centred dementia care. The factors including medications, footwear, assistive devices, home features, caregiver support, age related deterioration, cognitive defect, gait abnormality, sensory deficit and behavioural manifestations elevate the likelihood of falls and associated complications in the demented patients. Each demented patient experience at least one fall per year under the influence of mental manifestation and potential risk factors. The caregiver requires effectively modifying the immediate environment of the demented individual in a manner to facilitate the performance of daily activities including housekeeping, toileting and dressing (Phelan et al. 2015). Furthermore, administration of personal assistance for the safe undertaking of the personal care of demented people is necessarily required for reducing the risk of falling episodes. Medical professionals and rehabilitation experts require interacting with the demented patients for regularly monitoring their daily activities in the context of improving the pattern of their safety and associated outcomes. This interaction warrants the administration of therapeutic communication with the objective of evaluating the treatment challenges and individualized healthcare requirements of the demented people (Velea Purc?rea 2014). Demented patients affected with various co-morbid conditions require undertaking numerous treatment interventions under the recommendation of multiple healthcare professionals. Eventually, they might experience polypharmacy and other risk factors that could elevate the frequency of falling episodes and associated adverse manifestations (Hammond Wilson 2013). Utilization of dialogue and closeness interventions is required for evaluating the causative factors of the falling episodes among demented individuals (Struksnes et al. 2011). Medical professionals need to administer a questionnaire to the demented people with the objective of determining their environmental constraints as well as psycho-socio-somatic deficits contributing to the pattern of falling episodes. The questionnaire administration and collection of data require the systematic establishment of a therapeutic relationship with the demented patients in the context of motivating them for sharing their concerns and apprehensions regarding the falling episodes. The pattern of therapeutic relation also assists in mitigating the problematic behaviour of the treated patients in the clinical setting (Westermann et al. 2015). Furthermore, systematic documentation of patient concerns provides an insight to the medical professionals in terms of configuring patient-centred interventions for acquiring desirable healthcare outcomes (Struksnes et al. 2011). Rehabilitation professionals require undertaking horticulture interventions to facilitate the pattern of a therapeutic relationship with the objective of enhancing person-centred outcomes (Detweiler et al. 2012). Horticulture therapy advocates the utilization of gardening interventions and plants for enhancing the focus and attention span of the demented patients while concomitantly reducing the level of their agitation, stress and antipsychotic medication requirement. This eventually reduces the risk of falls and associated traumatic conditions in the demented patients. The effective configuration of socializing environments through protective parks increases the plant contact of the demented people that relax their minds and provide them psychosocial stability (Detweiler et al. 2012). These modifications substantially decrease the falling episodes of the demented individuals. The therapeutic alliance of the medical professionals with the demented patients across the natural surroun dings elevates their tactile and visual experience and motivates them for eating enhancement (Detweiler et al. 2012). The significant effects considerably improve the overall senses of the demented people that substantially decrease their risk of experiencing falls and associated adverse somatic complications (Detweiler et al. 2012). The pattern of therapeutic relationship improves the level of cortisol of the demented patients that resultantly improves their confidence and memory and reduce their predisposition towards the development of affective conditions and associated falling episodes. Practice change implementation for the demented people requires the systematic configuration of a proactive plan for the acquisition of the desirable patient-centred outcomes for the demented patients. The administration of the person-centred fall reduction interventions requires active collaboration between the clinicians, nurses, rehabilitation experts, physicians and other members of the healthcare team. Accordingly, the therapeutic alliance with the demented patients would require configuration for effectively decreasing the frequency of the falling episodes (Bunn et al. 2014). The establishment of the change process would require the systematic deployment of BEET (Building Effective Engagement Techniques) tool for controlling the elevated frequency of falling episodes among the demented patients. Undoubtedly, the deployment of effective patient-physician engagement interventions increases the quality and efficiency of patient-centred medical services in a matrix environment (IOM 2013). BEET tool is categorized into the following subsections. Puzzle and purpose include the research question (indicating the practice change requirement) and associated rationale. Evidence includes evidence-based findings that advocate benefits of the recommended practice change requirement. Context indicates the target population requiring the change intervention for the systematic acquisition of the patient-centred outcomes. It also includes the medical professionals who need to be part of the change process. Facilitation includes the recommended strategies warranting implementation for bringing the desirable change in the healthcare management of the demented patients. Puzzle and Purpose Healthcare professionals require using positive language with the demented patients and must not criticise them for their psychosocial deficits while extending therapeutic communication. The clinicians and nurses should not set any pre-condition while configuring the pattern of a therapeutic relationship with the treated patients. The following question is configured with the objective of acquiring the person-centred outcomes. How can we configure the therapeutic relationship with the demented people for implementing person-centred care and reducing their frequency of falls? The puzzle remains entirely positive in the context of improving the wellness pattern of the demented population. The puzzle does not hinder the administration of patient-centred care to the target population while imposing any constraint and does not define any pre-condition or assumes any predefined solution to the problem. The problem states the requirement of effectively engaging the nurse practitioners, physicians and rehabilitations experts and facilitating the process of mutual collaboration for improving patient communication and the resultant patient-care outcomes (i.e. risk reduction in relation to the falling episodes). The configured puzzle is framed in a positive format and does not invite criticism of any type because of the absence of pre-condition. The puzzle remains open in terms of acquiring a range of interventions warranted to improve the therapeutic relationship pattern for reducing the risk of falls in the demented patients. The straightforward answering (i.e. y es or no) cannot (objectively or subjectively) accomplish the requirements of the posted question/puzzle. These facts rationally indicate that the puzzle is configured in a manner to acquire innovative and comprehensive solutions with the objective of improving the person-centred care of the demented patients through improved communication pattern for reducing the length and severity of their adverse complications. Outcomes of the puzzle resolution would indicate the considerable reduction in the falling episodes and associated traumatic conditions of the demented people through the establishment of their improved cognition. The healthcare teams would find a range of evidence-based methods in the healthcare setting for improving the person-centred outcomes. The puzzle finally proposes the engagement of the healthcare professionals, demented patients and their family members in the process of their medical-decision making in the context of reducing their predisposition towards experi encing falling episodes. Indeed, substantial evidence is available in the clinical literature that advocates the requirement of undertaking the recommended practice change with the objective of improving the patient-centred outcomes in the demented people. The configuration of an effective therapeutic relationship would require the active engagement of nursing professionals, physicians, patients and their caretakers in the clinical setting. Nurse professionals must undertake informed decision-making and systematically involve the demented patients as well as their family members in the process of their medical care and treatment (Smebye, Kirkevold Engedal 2012). The multidisciplinary (i.e. team based) collaboration between the healthcare professionals and direct engagement of nurses in the process of patient communication will substantially decrease the scope of patient care errors and increase the pattern of compliance, satisfaction and trust of the demented patients on the recommended person-centred approaches (Wen Schulman 2014). Resultantly, the improvement in the healthcare outcomes will enhance the cognitive and somatic capacities of the treated patients. This will eventually reduce their falling episodes and associated traumat ic manifestations. The dynamic therapeutic alliance and elevated clinicians competence leads to improved patient care outcomes (Campbell et al. 2015). The shortage of nursing staff and their excessive workload might constrain them in terms of investing additional time in improving the pattern of interpersonal relationship with the treated patient while utilizing therapeutic communication (Alghamdi 2016). Eventually, this could impact the acquisition of the treatment outcomes and the demented patient might continue to experience falls and trauma at the same pace. The nurse professionals therefore, require developing transformational leadership skills in the context of effectively delegating their daily work requirements for reducing the level of their stress and additional time consumed in undertaking the daily job roles (Negussie Demissie 2013). The hospital administration must also consider the provision of financial incentives in the context of accomplishing additional patient requirements by the nu rse professionals. In this manner, nurse professionals will acquire motivation and enthusiasm with the objective of potentially configuring a therapeutic relationship with the demented patients for reducing the frequency of their falling episodes. An additional intervention for improving the desirable patient-centred outcomes includes the administration of counselling and training sessions to the registered nurses in relation to improving their work management skills in the clinical settings. This will substantially improve their capacity of utilizing therapeutic communication while handling dementia patients for the systematic accomplishment of the patient care goals. Indeed, BEET tool is an effectively modality for systematically engaging the medical professionals and the treated patients in terms of bringing the desirable patient care outcomes. The presented context requires the effective implementation of the Top-14 best practice recommendations with the objective of improving the therapeutic relationship of the demented patients with the treating clinicians for acquiring the goal-oriented patient-centred outcome (i.e. falls reduction) (Virani et al. 2002). These recommendations are sequentially provided in the attached appendix. These recommendations require encapsulated in the walls of the clinical setting in the context of motivating the nurse professionals, physicians, demented patients and their family members for practicing therapeutic communication and shared medical decision-making for systematic improvement in the psycho-socio-somatic outcomes. The configuration of interpersonal relationship with the demented patients through extended professional communication (while utilizing the practice recommendations will substantially reduce the risk of their prospective falls in the clinical as well as residential settings. The practice implications of the recommended Top-14 recommendations include the substantial reduction in the length of stay of the demented patients in the clinical settings and reduction in the additional cost incurred in treating traumatic complications that emanate under the influence of frequent falling episodes. The empathic and person-centred healthcare approaches will improve the pattern of self-sufficiency of the demented patients and increase their partnership in the process of medical decision-making. The systematic deployment of goal oriented dementia care approaches in the clinical settings will eventually reduce the development of co-morbid states and physical challenges that could potentially elevate the scope of falls and associated trauma. Conclusion The BEET tool was categorically explored for evaluating the scope of establishing a systematic transformation in the conventional practice methodology for the demented patients in the context of reducing their frequency of falls and traumatic conditions. The subject of study was researched in evidence-based literature and the findings advocated the requirement of actively engaging the nurse professionals and patients in the process of medical decision-making with the utilization of therapeutic communication. The Top 14 best practice recommendations require implementation in the dementia care settings for enhancing the pattern of person-centred approaches requiring administration with the objective of reducing the frequency of falling episodes and associated adverse clinical complications in the demented people. References Abdolrahimi, M, Ghiyasvandian, S, Zakerimoghadam, M Ebadi, A 2017, 'Therapeutic communication in nursing students: A Walker Avant concept analysis', Electronic Physician, vol 9, no. 8, pp. 4968-4977, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5614280/. Aizen , E 2015, 'FALLS IN PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA', Harefuah, vol 154, no. 5, pp. 323-6, 338, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26168645. Alghamdi , MG 2016, 'Nursing workload: a concept analysis', Journal of Nursing Management, vol 24, no. 4, pp. 449-457, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749124. Bunn, F, Dickinson, A, Simpson, C, Narayanan, V, Humphrey, D, Griffiths, C, Martin, W Victor, C 2014, 'Preventing falls among older people with mental health problems: a systematic review', BMC Nursing, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3942767/. Campbell, BK, Guydish, J, Le, T, Wells, EA MacCarty, D 2015, 'The Relationship of Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Delivery Fidelity with Treatment Retention in a Multisite Trial of Twelve-Step Facilitation', Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, vol 29, no. 1, pp. 106-113, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4739723/. Detweiler, MB, Sharma, T, Detweiler, JG, Murphy, PF, Lane, S, Carman, J, Chudhary, AS, Halling, MH Kim, KY 2012, 'What Is the Evidence to Support the Use of Therapeutic Gardens for the Elderly?', Psychiatry Investigation, vol 9, no. 2, pp. 100-110, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3372556/. Hammond, T Wilson, A 2013, 'Polypharmacy and Falls in the Elderly: A Literature Review', Nursing and Midwifery Studies, vol 2, no. 2, pp. 171-175, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4228551/. IOM 2013, 'Engaging Patients, Families, and Communities', in Best Care at Lower Cost: The Path to Continuously Learning Health Care in America, National Academies Press, USA, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207234/. Jong, MRD, Elst, MVD Hartholt, KA 2013, 'Drug-related falls in older patients: implicated drugs, consequences, and possible prevention strategies', Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, vol 4, no. 4, pp. 147-154, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125318/. Jootun , D McGhee , G 2011, 'Effective communication with people who have dementia', Nursing Standard, vol 25, no. 25, pp. 40-46, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469475. Kim, DH, Brown , RT, Ding, EL, Kiel, DP Berry, SD 2011, 'Dementia Medications and Risk of Falls, Syncope, and Related Adverse Events Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials', Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol 59, no. 6, pp. 1019-1031, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3260523/. Negussie, N Demissie, A 2013, 'Relationship Between Leadership Styles of Nurese Managers and Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital', Ethiopian Journal of Health Science, vol 23, no. 1, pp. 49-58, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613815/. Phelan, EA, Mahoney, JE, Voit, JC Stevens, JA 2015, 'Assessment and Management of Fall Risk in Primary Care Settings', Medical Clinics of North America, vol 99, no. 2, pp. 281-293, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4707663/. Segev-Jacubovski, O, Herman, T, Yogev-Seligmann, G, Mirelman, A, Giladi, N Hausdorff, JM 2011, 'The interplay between gait, falls and cognition: can cognitive therapy reduce fall risk?', Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol 11, no. 7, pp. 10571075, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3163836/. Smebye, KL, Kirkevold, M Engedal, K 2012, 'How do persons with dementia participate in decision making related to health and daily care? A multi-case study', BMC Health Services Research, p. 241, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3475075/. Struksnes, S, Bachrach-Lindstrm, M, Hall-Lord, ML, Slaasletten, R Johansson, I 2011, 'The nursing staff's opinion of falls among older persons with dementia. a cross-sectional study', BMC Nursing, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3142214/. Swaminathan, A Jicha, GA 2014, 'Nutrition and prevention of Alzheimers dementia', Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, p. 282, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4202787/. Velea, P Purc?rea, VL 2014, 'Issues of therapeutic communication relevant for improving quality of care', Journal of Medicine and Life, vol 7, no. 4, pp. 39-45, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4813615/. Virani, T, Tait, A, McConnell, H, Scott, C Gergolas, E 2002, Nursing Best Practice Guideline - Shaping the future of Nursing (Establishing Therapeutic Relationships), RNAO, Ontario, https://rnao.ca/sites/rnao-ca/files/Establishing_Therapeutic_Relationships.pdf. Wen, J Schulman, KA 2014, 'Can Team-Based Care Improve Patient Satisfaction? A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials', PLoS One, vol 9, no. 7, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094385/. Westermann, S, Cavelti, M, Heibach, E Caspar, F 2015, 'Motive-oriented therapeutic relationship building for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia', Frontiers in Psychology, p. 1294, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4557062/.
Thursday, April 9, 2020
Introduction Corporate culture is defined as rules, values, beliefs, and norms, which are shared by all stakeholders of the firm. Norms influence the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences and behaviour in the organisation. Culture is present in every organisation and it develops as company grows (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 319). It determines the conduct of workers in an organisation coupled with how a firm conducts its business.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Japanese Corporate Culture specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Numerous researches on corporate culture have been carried out and the findings indicate that the nature of corporate culture can influence businessÃ¢â¬â¢ performance either positively or negatively (Kubo and Saka 271). Experts have proposed certain factors that a corporate culture should embody in order to improve economic performance of the company. A good corporate culture should be based on the needs of all stakeholders, employees, customers, and investors (Batyko 17). The culture should be tested for its fitness in the business environment in addition to being flexible to accommodate changes. Flexibility of corporate culture is significant as the business environment keeps on changing and such changes should be reflected in the culture if a company has to flourish in a competitive market (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 727). Corporate culture becomes obsolete with time, and thus it should be revised regularly. A corporate culture might lead to success of a business for a given period after which diminishing results are observed. Research indicates that a strong corporate culture, which is compatible with the business environment, will lead to increased profits for the firm (Lund 219). Corporate culture is thus an important aspect of business and it cannot be ignored in the contemporary business world. The Japanese corporate culture is based on the values that were laid down by Konosuke Matsushita Ã¢â¬â one of the most famous ancient entrepreneurs in Japan (Batyko 18). The entrepreneur identified customers and employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs as the major components of corporate culture. However, corporate culture should be consistent with the environment within which the business operates. The entrepreneur also emphasised on the need for good relationship among employees, as well as their inclusion in major decision-making process. This essay will analyse the nature of corporate culture in Japan, identify its strengths and weaknesses, and determine whether it helps or hinders companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this paper, the corporate culture in Japan will be analysed thoroughly and a conclusion will be made on whether it promotes the success of companies in the country. Analysing the corporate culture in Japan, the essay will classify the companies into two: the large and small companies General overview of the Japanese corporate culture The Japanese culture of management stands out clearly in large corporations. Management is obliged to create a culture that supports the inclusion of workers in every undertaking (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 726). The aim of inclusions of employees in every undertaking is to maintain a culture of harmony among the stakeholders of the company. The management of the companies are expected to treat their workers with due respect and provide the best incentives to ensure that employees remain committed to delivering quality services. Most companies in Japan are focused on attaining the best quality of products to satisfy the needs of the customers. In a bid to achieve this goal, they recruit the best employees and offer them competitive salaries to maintain them and win their loyalty. In additional to inclusion of workers in the decision-making process, proper commu nication is embraced. Any problem arising in the course of carrying out business is resolved immediately (Cooper-Chen and Tanaka 98). Communication between workers and the management is maintained all the year round and is characterised by frequent feedbacks. For a corporate culture to be effective, the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs should be addressed. Communication creates a venue through which employees can air their grievances to the management. Communication further creates a good relationship between the managers and employees, which is essential if the company is to achieve its goals. The customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs should be considered when formulating a corporate culture. Customers require high quality goods, which retail at reasonable prices. In other words, customers will remain loyal to firms that give value to their money.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Japanese Corporate Culture specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn Mo re EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ incentives and work environment The employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ working conditions in Japanese companies heavily depend on the size and nature of the firm (Lee and Yu 357). Employees in large companies enjoy better working conditions than those working in smaller ones. The large companies are more efficient than the small ones due to the motivation created through the provision of favourable working conditions to workers (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 725). Employees work for more hours in large companies than in small companies. This aspect means that the output in large companies is higher than in small companies. In addition to the basic salary, workers are compensated for the overtime hours worked (Kubo and Saka 266). This aspect creates a further incentive for workers in large companies to work for additional hours to earn extra income. In the process of devoting more time to work, the output increases, thus leading to extra profits for the companies. Statistics s how that the working hours in large and medium sized companies in Japan are more than 12 hours a day (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 329). Some employees are in support of the long working hours, while others are reluctant to embrace it. Those opposing the long working hour-schemes assert that subjecting workers to long working hours is tantamount to exploitation, and it is against the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights (Lund 219). Some scholars claim that companies will initially receive brilliant results for the additional time devoted by workers in the short run, but it will have diminishing results in the end due to fatigue (Batyko 19). Companies offer incentives for workers seeking for permanent jobs by availing higher salaries to the permanent employees as compared to casual labourers. Many employees will thus sign agreements for permanent jobs with the companies. The corporate culture in JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s large companies tends to exhibit certain similarities. The Japanese job market is based on the Ã¢â¬Å"simultaneous recruitmentÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"lifetime employmentÃ¢â¬ models. Most large companies in the country subject their employees to long working hours in a bid to improve performance (Kubo and Saka 270).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the employees enjoy numerous employment benefits from the companies in order to remain motivated. Job security is guaranteed under the lifetime employment model and an employee may only leave the company at his or her own discretion. Job placement is based on skills and educational background and only the best employees are selected to occupy vacant positions (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 728). Each employee has the responsibility of working industriously and demonstrate loyalty to the employer. The companies have an appealing incentive scheme for employees and graduates. Firstly, the companies pay their employees competitive salaries coupled with giving job security guarantee. Additional benefits that accrue from employment include housing benefits, life insurance, bonuses, pensions, and recreational facilities among others (Cooper-Chen and Tanaka 104). Secondly, the best workers receive promotions, which come with increased salaries and additional benefits. Th e benefits given to workers ensure that companies retain the best workers, thus increasing efficiency, which results in greater profits and increased chances of success. Bonuses are also afforded twice per year, viz. in the mid-year and at the end of the year. The culture of subjecting workers to long working hours came into existence in the 1920s when it was noted that human labour is an important factor of production in large companies (Batyko 12). However, the scheme has faced opposition from labour unions, thus forcing the companies to reduce the working hours for their employees. Corporate culture in small firms differs greatly from that of large firms. In smaller companies, new employees are recruited as unskilled workers and put under a senior skilled supervisor to teach them (Batyko 13). Such employees spend long periods learning from the experienced supervisors. They are exposed to deep learning of concepts in specific areas as opposed to shallow, but broad coverage seen in large companies. Employees in smaller companies use smaller tools to accomplish their tasks and due to repetition and specialisation, they may produce high quality goods using simple tools (Batyko 17). In most cases, the small companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ products are used as raw materials in large companies and they rarely sell them directly to the consumer. Labour unions Despite the workers being free to join labour unions, there is a link between companies and the labour unions (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 329). Unions are denied the right to exist as separate entities, and thus companies and labour unions are two inseparable set ups (Kubo and Saka 266). The independence of the labour unions is thus compromised and they cannot achieve a lot. The corporate culture in Japan is successful in eliminating labour strikes, and thus it is rare for employees to go on strikes especially due to the connection between companies and the labour unions (Makino and Roehl 40). In addition, employees are committ ed to the company they work for, and thus they may not be willing to harm the economic wellbeing of the firm. Management corporate culture Another aspect that defines corporate culture in Japan is the aspect of management (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 722). Companies in Japan recruit managers who have the right skills to manage a workforce for the success of the business. The majority of companies in the country have adopted an all-inclusive leadership style (Lund 225). In other words, managers exercise a democratic leadership style that accommodates the inputs of workers in the decision-making process. Decisions are based on a consensus, and thus it is not a one personÃ¢â¬â¢s mandate. The inclusion of workers in the decision-making process instils a sense of inclusion and recognition among employees. Workers also feel motivated working on targets that they have created. Employees also tend to compete in terms of performance in various departments in a bid to please their employ ers in order to win promotions. In addition, the inclusion of workers in decision-making brings employees together, thus creating a culture of harmony and teamwork, which may go a long way in improving performance. In addition, managers show concern over the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ personal lives; hence, they do not just issue orders to workers (Kubo and Saka 264). This scenario creates a good relationship between the management and employees promoting motivation and understanding. In a recap, the leadership of major companies in Japan plays a key role in the success of their businesses. Proposed changes to Japanese corporate culture Researchers have proposed various changes to the Japanese corporate culture. Among those changes is the mobility of labour (Kubo and Saka 270). The nature of employment in the country is based on a lifetime employment. Employees remain in a given company for the entire live until they are incapacitated and they cannot deliver. This aspect is a great barrier t o labour mobility; hence, new ideas believed to come with mobility of labour are excluded in the workplace. Another proposed change is the structure of management. The representatives of management of companies in Japan are reluctant to take new risks, as they are opposed to changes in the organisation structures (Lee and Yu 351). They are reluctant to recruit foreign workers into their firms and they cannot risk mergers and acquisition (Lund 219). The management should create a reward system for employees for their hard work, innovation, and inventions (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 720). They should create a committee within organisations to scrutinise new investment opportunities. In addition, there should be sufficient incentives for managers to take risks. The proposals for changes in corporate culture started over three decades ago. In the 1980s, some large companies were convinced of the need for change in the corporate structure and they laid off some of their workers only to replace them with other modern methods of increasing production such as promotions, which they believed would boost their sales even when the quality was not high. Inward attitude nature The Japanese corporate structure somehow does not provide room for merge and acquisition (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 307), due to the emphasis made on the inward outlook of companies. The Japanese companies insist on individual success, and thus they overlook the benefits that may accrue from restructuring. The problem is further compounded by the view that the tax rates for some forms of businesses are prohibitive. The tax levied on partnership businesses is high, thus preventing businesses from merging to create such forms of businesses and pool resources together (Rashid, Sambasivan, and Johari 718). Japanese investors also rarely welcome outside investors into their businesses due to the inward attitude that exists. They insist on quality of goods and services in a bid to ensure customer satisfac tion and improve the working conditions for their workers, thus overlooking the importance of businesses coming together for some common purpose through mergers and acquisition, which would go a long way in mobilising resources and lowering costs of operation (Kubo and Saka 265). Therefore, the Japanese corporate culture should embrace diversity as it allows organisations to maximise on disparate ideas of people coming from different regions across the world. Critics The corporate culture in Japan has been criticised for its inflexible nature. Critics argue that the nature of the Japanese corporate culture today is a major hindrance to the development of small and medium size companies. The culture is inflexible, as it does not allow major business developments such as merger and acquisitions. On the issue of merger and acquisition, the corporate culture is not compatible with such restructuring undertakings, which characterise the contemporary businesses across the world. The Japan ese corporate culture emphasises the inward outlook, vertical integration, and provision of quality products for customers. It ignores outsourcing where certain services can be sourced from outside the organisation (Lee and Yu 349). The other critic is the overreliance on the academic community (Lee and Yu 341). The culture only believes that major invention and innovations can only be achieved through employment of academic principles (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 309). This idea is contrary to other ideas in other countries like the US whereby innovation and invention are believed to come from industrial experiments (Lund 223). The Japanese corporate culture also faces criticism due to its emphasis on long job tenures in an attempt to maintain the original workforce (Lee and Yu 348). This aspect is a great barrier to labour mobility, which according to critics leads to the introduction of new ideas in an organisation coupled with increasing competitive intensity (Kubo and Saka 269). Cri tics also argue that the number of women in leadership in Japan is less than required under the current corporate culture. Research based on the leadership trait theory indicates that women leaders possess up to five out of nine traits that are important to leadership, and thus barring them from attaining leadership positions is a factor that contributes to failure of Japanese companies. The alleged five traits are said to be inborn in female leaders, and thus they are believed to deliver more in leadership positions as compared to men. Communication and decision-making In the Japanese corporate culture, the term Ã¢â¬Å"ringiÃ¢â¬ is used to refer to the process of acquiring inputs from stakeholders before making a decision (Sarra and Nakaghigashi 299). The term is made up of two parts, viz. Ã¢â¬Å"rinÃ¢â¬ , which refers to the act of submitting a proposal to the authorities or those higher in the hierarchy, and Ã¢â¬Å"giÃ¢â¬ , which refers to the process of discussions and de liberations (Lee and Yu 343). In the Japanese corporate culture, a decision must be reached through consensus and not by one person. Employees make proposals to their supervisors on certain key issues through a document referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"ringishoÃ¢â¬ , which is similar to a circular and it is circulated to all the stakeholders (Kubo and Saka 267). The proposal is peer-reviewed and those involved show support or rejection of the idea by appending a seal on the document. The document finally reaches the top management and the proposal is either upheld or rejected. The originator of the idea must be notified of its acceptance or rejection. If rejected, one is given the opportunity to make changes to the document and repeat the procedure. This aspect ensures that everyone in the company is involved in the making of key decisions. This involvement is healthy since everyone will work on a decision he/she has made. The corporate culture in Japan thus includes the interest of its empl oyees, which is necessary for an inclusive corporate culture. Comparison with other countries One of the factors that makes the Japanese corporate structure unique is the decision-making process. In Japan, consultations have to be made with all stakeholders, and thus a lot of time, which could be used in production, is wasted (Lee and Yu 347). This aspect comes out as both strength and weakness. It becomes strength since decisions are made carefully and the probability of achieving the set target increases. This aspect is in contrast with the decision-making process in other countries whereby the process is executed under the watch of those in management, and thus less time is wasted and quick decisions are made (Lund 223). However, in instances where such decisions are quickly made, chances are that slight mistakes may occur, thus leading to less achievement. Contrary to corporate cultures in other countries, the work life in Japan is more essential than personal life (Kubo and Sak a 268). In Japan, a series of meetings is held even during out of duty hours to deliberate on certain issues concerning the company. An example of such an after-work meeting is the Nomikai party held occasionally to bring together the management and employees to discuss the way forward for companies (Lee and Yu 341). This scenario is different from other countries, where there is a balance between work and personal life and few after-work meetings are held. Additionally, Japanese employees are encouraged to remain in a company through monetary rewards and promotions (Kubo and Saka 262). The more a worker stays in a specific company, the more his/her salary is. The Japanese managerial style is different from companies in other countries. The nature of management in Japanese companies emphasises a bottom up flow of information as opposed to a top- down flow, which is evident in most other countries (Lund 219). The Japanese corporate culture allows employees to formulate policies for c ompanies. Managers cultivate good relationship with their subordinates in a bid to create a culture of harmony in companies. The harmony created is healthy for companies for when workers work in teams efficiency is boosted, which in most cases results in huge profits. The role of decision-making is given to subordinates who place their suggestions to the top managers for consideration in making key decisions. Conclusion Corporate culture determines the success or failure of a business. Therefore, businesses should adopt a corporate culture that best favours the organisational operations. A good corporate culture should include the interest of all stakeholders coupled with being compatible with the business environment. Compatibility of the corporate culture with the environment is a major determinant of the businessesÃ¢â¬â¢ success and research indicates that a weak, but compatible corporate culture can outdo a strong corporate culture that is incompatible with the operational env ironment (Lund 219). The corporate culture in Japan differs greatly from corporate cultures in other countries. In Japan, workers are retained for lifetime as long as they can deliver effectively. In a bid to keep employees, competitive salaries and other fringe benefits are availed. However, the system of corporate governance in Japan is criticised for its shortfalls, which include management style that does not encourage innovation and invention. It has also been criticised for its inflexible nature that does not provide room for changes. Overall, the Japanese corporate culture promotes organisational performance, because its merits overrule its demerits. Works Cited Batyko, Richard. Ã¢â¬Å"The Impact of Corporate Culture on Public Relations in Japan: A Case Study Examining Tokyo Electric Powerand Toyota.Ã¢â¬ Public Relations Journal 6.3 (2012): 1-19. Print. Cooper-Chen, Ann, and Michiyo Tanaka. Ã¢â¬Å"Public relations in Japan: The cultural roots of Kouhou.Ã¢â¬ Journal of P ublic Relations Research 20.1 (2008): 95-114. Print. Kubo, Izumi, and Ayse Saka. Ã¢â¬Å"An inquiry into the motivations of knowledge workers in the Japanese financial industry.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Knowledge Management 6.3 (2002): 262-271. Print. Lee, Kim, and Kelvin Yu. Ã¢â¬Å"Corporate culture and organisational performance.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Managerial Psychology 19.4 (2004): 340-359. Print. Lund, Daulatram. Ã¢â¬Å"Organisational culture and job satisfaction.Ã¢â¬ Journal of business industrial marketing 18.3 (2003): 219-236. Print. Makino, Shige, and Tome Roehl. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning from Japan: a commentary.Ã¢â¬ Academy of Management Perspectives 24.4 (2010): 38-45. Print. Rashid, Abdul, Murali Sambasivan, and Juliana Johari. Ã¢â¬Å"The influence of corporate culture and organisational commitment on performance.Ã¢â¬ Journal of management development 22.8 (2003): 708-728. Print. Sarra, Janis, and Masafumi Nakaghigashi. Ã¢â¬Å"Balancing social and corporate culture in the global economy: the evolution of Japanese corporate structure and norms.Ã¢â¬ Law Policy 24.4 (2002): 299-354. Print. This essay on Japanese Corporate Culture was written and submitted by user Eleanor Rutledge to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, March 9, 2020
President Bush and the Economy essays After September 11th, 2001, the American economy went into a recession. Thousands of people lost jobs in the wake of the devastating attacks. The stock market took a major hit which also caused people to lose money. Today, Americas economy is recovering and showing signs of growth. This can be attributed to the fact that President Bush is improving the American economy. Over the last two years, the American economy has been weak. The national and state economies have suffered great losses and therefore so have working families. Almost every economic measurement is looking down while job loss, unemployment, health care costs, poverty and personal bankruptcies are all up. One year after the end of the recession, millions of unemployed U.S. workers still cannot find jobs. Last year, the Bureau of Labor Statistics showed that Americas workers were facing the biggest job crisis since the Great Depression. Employment has been the main concern among Americans since September 11th. The fact that many people are without jobs has caused many individuals to retire at an early age. It also means that many Americans had to find other ways of supporting their families. Since the beginning of his administration, the President has made many changes that would decrease unemployment and improve many other economic problems in America. Some have succeeded, some have not. The most recent proposal made by the President is an example of one that succeeded. On January 7th, 2003, President Bush announced a growth and jobs plan which was enacted into law immediately. According to the President, this plan would encourage job-creating investment in Americas businesses by ending the double taxation of dividends and giving small businesses incentives to grow. The President also said that the plan would provide help for unemployed Americans, including extending unemployment benefits and creating new re-employment account...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Must Atheology Prove Gods Nonexistence (Willian L. Rowe Evil is Evidence against Theistic Belief) - Essay Example Rowe considers the view of the theists that there exists an all powerful, all-knowing, perfectly good being (God) as Ã¢â¬Ërestricted theismÃ¢â¬â¢ as it Ã¢â¬Å"does not include any claim that is not entailed by itÃ¢â¬ (183). To find out whether the occurrence of evils in the world lower the likelihood of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence, Rowe brings out two premises based on which he concludes that God does not exist. The two premises are, Rowe points out that theists have to reject either one of these premises if they have to prove the existence of God, and that they mostly accept the second premise, thereby rejecting the first one. Therefore, the theists will have to accept the fact that for every horrendous evil that takes place, there has to be an outweighing good for which God has no way of materializing without permitting the evil. Rowe provides two analogies to counter the argument that there is a justifying reason for God to permit horrendous evils. One is of a fawn horribly burned in a forest fire caused by lightning. It dies only after five days and has to undergo intense suffering until then, lying on the forest floor. The second analogy is of a five year old girl brutally beaten, raped, and strangled in Flint, Michigan, on New yearÃ¢â¬â¢s day a few years ago. In both the cases, it cannot be argued that the suffering inflicted on the fawn and the girl are justifiable for some reason, as they personally do not benefit anything from the suffering and die without getting any relief. Rowe goes on to analyze two theistic responses to these analogies that point to the non-existence of God. The first one addresses the first premise and argues that the fact that we fail to understand the good that is meant by God when seemingly meaningless suffering is inflicted on us. The analogy of a child that is put to suffering by its parents for an unavoidable surgical procedure